Changes in consonants and vowels in cases.

Discussion in 'Grammar & Pronunciation' started by jsmith, Dec 1, 2006.

  1. jsmith

    jsmith Member

    Can anybody confirm that I am on the right tract? If a word has a nasal sound then the 'e' will change to 'ě' in the third case as in the model žena - ženě. If a word following the same model (žena) has the sound 'k' it will change in the third case to 'c' as in kamaradka - kamaradce. If a word has the sound 'ch' as in punčocha in the third case the sound 'ch' will change to 'š' as in punčoše. Alternatively sestra will change to sestře. Are these rules and are there any more?
  2. scrimshaw

    scrimshaw Well-Known Member

    You might need to rethink your theory.
    I don't think those are the rules.
    You examples work, but the method about the nasal sound is new to me.
    It is the ending of the word, rather than the n sound, that determines case endings.
  3. phi11ip

    phi11ip Well-Known Member

    Hi jsmith
    You're not far off. Basically for third case (Dative) nouns for model žena, the ending is ě, but if the final consonant is a g, h, ch, k or r then it becomes e.
  4. wer

    wer Well-Known Member

    Scrimshaw is right.
    The dative ending in paradigm žena causes half-softening of preceding consonant.


    b -> bj
    f -> fj
    p -> pj
    v -> vj
    m -> mň
    (bje, fje, pje, vje, mňe -> bě, fě, pě, vě, mě
    bji, fji, pji, vji, mňi -> bi, fi, pi, vi, mi)

    d -> ď
    t -> ť
    n -> ň
    (ďe, ťe, ňe -> dě, tě, ně
    ďi, ťi, ňi -> di, ti, ni)

    r -> ř
    k -> c
    h -> z
    g -> z
    ch -> š

    ck -> čť
    sk -> šť
    (this change doesn't occur in words with stem ending in c/s and ending begining in k; e.g. polský -> polští, but kostka-> kostce)
  5. scrimshaw

    scrimshaw Well-Known Member

    great explanation wer.
    I did not know all those details about softening endings.

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