The universities in the Western Europe are in large measure influenced by the 1968 student rebels. While most of the American "sixtyeighters" turned to be standard American "capitalists", their European collegues turned to be left-wing politicians or university professors and preachers of anti-Americanism. No, one can’t rule out most of the factors during the statistical analysis, that’s mathematically impossible. You can rule out a set of factors, but the collection of all factors is a class, not a set. But I bet one could find such a set of factors to make the results statistically insignificant, resp to make the analysis unproportionally data-consuming. The only chance to rule out all the factors is in the stage of the experiment. You have to organize it, that means to determine who has or has not to smoke and to control the lives of all the people for decades. But such a Mengeleian experiment is hardly thinkable. I gues we are arguing in circles . What I try to say is that the anti-Americanism could be driven by some specifical misconceptions, but it is rather the specificity of the misconception what drives it. Or alternatively, it is not driven by misconception, but by something else via (some) misconception. I often wonder whether it is scepticism or empiricism. Czech opposition is mostly based on parallels in the past.