Discussion in 'Grammar & Pronunciation' started by brazilianboy923, Jan 4, 2007.

  1. brazilianboy923

    brazilianboy923 New Member

    i have a doubt...
    i'd like to know if there's any way to know what kind of case will take the word in a phrase...example...when will i know if the verb take accusative..dative..and there any way to know it??

  2. dzurisova

    dzurisova Well-Known Member

  3. brazilianboy923

    brazilianboy923 New Member

    it will be very useful

  4. Tchesko

    Tchesko New Member

    I'm not sure if the above-mentioned link is very useful, to me it seems very insufficient. :shock:

    Here is something more serious: :wink: ... _czech.pdf

    For the use of cases see Syntax of noun phrases pp. 65-84.
  5. Eleshar

    Eleshar Well-Known Member

    Generally (very roughly):

    case - syntactic meaning (surface structure); semantic/logical meaning (deep structure)

    nominative - subject; agens in active sentences, patiens in passive sentences

    genitive - indirect atribute; possession, origin,............. sometimes agens in passive sentences if introduced by preposition "od", sometimes agens in active sentences if following a numeral greater than "4".

    dative - indirect object; beneficiens

    accusative - direct object; patiens in active transitive sentences, expresses direction (where to)

    vocative - independent; appellation

    locative - (always with preposition) adverbial; expresses location (where), topic,.......

    instrumental - adverbial; agens in passive sentences, expresses means, ways, instruments,.............

    All cases except nominative can be introduce with a preposition. Many prepositions allow more cases to follow them (with different meanings - has to be remembered). Locative is always preceded by a preposition.

    agens - the one who performs the action (logically)
    patiens - the one who undergoes the action (logically)
    beneficiens - the one for whose profit or harm the action is done (logically)

    e.g.: Pan Jones (nominative, subject, agens) dává svému synovi (dative, indirect object, beneficiens) malý dárek (accusative, direct object, patiens).

    The semantic expressions are not absolute of course.

    Mr. Jones (position with function similar to nominative; subject, agens) teaches English (position with function similiar to accusative; direct object; patiens) to his pupils (preposition with function similar to dative, indirect object, beneficiens).
    perfectly logical, is it not?
    Pan Jones (nominative, subject, agens) učí své žáky (accusative, direct object, beneficiens!!!) angličtině (dative, indirect object, patiens!!!).
    But this sentence is not very used today, we do not say any longer "učit něčemu" but rather "učit něco"... :
    Pan Jones (nominative, subject, agens) učí své žáky (accusative, direct object!!!, beneficiens!!!) angličtinu (accusative, direct object!!!, patiens!!!).

    So it is a sentence with TWO direct objects - something I have never encountered before in any language... The signification of the sentence can be deduced only from the deep structure!!!
  6. Zeisig

    Zeisig Well-Known Member

    Speak for yourself, please. :wink:

    I should say:

    Pan Jones učí své žáky lásce k rodnému jazyku. Také je učí kázni a pořádku. Zejména však je učí opatrnosti a rozvaze při pronášení kategorických soudů.

    Never the other way.
  7. Sova

    Sova Well-Known Member

    I also learned "učit koho čemu" also, and still use this form.

Share This Page