Czech History

500 - 1306: The Great Moravian Empire and the Přemyslid Dynasty
1310 - 1378: John of Luxembourg and Charles IV
1415 - 1526: The Hussite Era and George of Poděbrady
1526 - 1790: The Habsburg Dynasty to Joseph II
1790 - 1914: National Revival to World War I
1918 - 1945: The First Republic and World War II
1945 - 1989: The Communist Era
1989 - present: Velvet Revolution and Beyond

National Revival to World War I

A nationalist movement called the National Revival (národní obrození) started at the end of the 18th century, attempting to bring the Czech language, culture and national identity back to life. Some of the most prominent figures of the revival movement were Josef Dobrovský and Josef Jungmann who succeeded in introducing the study of the Czech language in schools, and historian František Palacký, author of the History of the Czech People. Czech literature was reborn with novelist Božena Němcová, Romantic poet Karel Hynek Mácha, political columnist Karel Havlíček Borovský, and others. The first dictionary of the Czech language (the Czech-German Dictionary) was written by Josef Jungmann and published in five volumes in 1834-1839. Czech institutions were established to celebrate the Czech history and culture. The National Theater opened in 1883 and the National Museum in 1890.

The 19th century is also characterized by the Industrial Revolution and the building of factories. A railway between Vienna and Prague was opened in 1845. The growing industry resulted in an increase of Prague's Czech population as people moved to the city from the countryside.

The beginning of the end of the Habsburg dynasty came with the assassination of Francis Ferdinand in 1914, an event that preceded World War I.

Related books on

- The Habsburg Monarchy, 1618-1815
- The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809-1918: A History of the Austrian Empire...
- The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815 - 1918 (2nd Edition)

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